The Virtue of Selfishness
Centennial edition cover
Author(s) Ayn Rand
Country United States
Language English
Subject(s) Ethics
Publisher New American Library
Publication date 1964
Media type Print
ISBN 0-451-16393-1 (Centennial edition)
OCLC Number 183461

The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism is a 1964 collection of essays and papers by Ayn Rand and Nathaniel Branden. Most of the essays originally appeared in The Objectivist Newsletter, except for "The Objectivist Ethics", which was a paper Rand delivered at the University of Wisconsin during a symposium on "Ethics in Our Time".[1] The book covers ethical issues from the perspective of Rand's Objectivist philosophy. Some of its themes include the identification and validation of egoism as a rational code of ethics, the destructiveness of altruism, and the nature of a proper government.

Publishing historyEdit

The idea of creating a collection of Rand's essays initially came from Bennett Cerf of Random House, who had published two of Rand's previous books, Atlas Shrugged and For the New Intellectual. Rand proposed a collection of articles to be titled The Fascist New Frontier, after a Ford Hall Forum speech she had given criticizing the views of President John F. Kennedy. Uncomfortable with Rand's comparison of Kennedy to Adolf Hitler, Cerf asked that Rand choose a different title essay. She rejected this request and dropped Random House (as well as ending her friendship with Cerf), choosing New American Library as the publisher for her new book. The Virtue of Selfishness not only bore a different title, it did not even include her piece on Kennedy. He had been assassinated before it was released, making the point of the essay moot.[2]

The book became one of Rand's strongest-selling works of nonfiction, selling over 400,000 copies in the first four months of its release,[3] and over 1.25 million copies by 2008.[4]

Use of the term 'selfishness'Edit

Rand's characterization of selfishness as a virtue, including in the title of the book, is one of its most controversial elements. Philosopher Chandran Kukathas said Rand's position on this point "brought notoriety, but kept her out of the intellectual mainstream."[5] Rand acknowledged in the book's introduction that the term 'selfishness' was not typically used to describe virtuous behavior, but insisted that her usage was consistent with a more precise meaning of the term as simply "concern with one's own interests." The equation of selfishness with evil, Rand said, had caused "the arrested moral development of mankind" and needed to be rejected.[6]

Critics have disputed Rand's interpretation of the term. Libertarian feminist writer Sharon Presley described Rand's use of 'selfishness' as "perversely idiosyncratic" and contrary to the dictionary meaning of the term, Rand's claims to the contrary notwithstanding. Presley believes the use of the term has caused Rand's arguments to be frequently mischaracterized.[7] Philosophy professor Max Hocutt dismissed the phrase 'the virtue of selfishness' as "rhetorical excess", saying that "without qualification and explanation, it is too paradoxical to merit serious discussion."[8] In contrast, philosophers Douglas J. Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen described Rand's response to the question of why she uses the term as "neither antagonistic nor defensive, but rather profound."[9] Philosopher Chris Matthew Sciabarra said it is "debatable" whether Rand accurately described the meaning of the term, but argued that Rand's philosophical position required altering the conventional meanings of some terms in order to express her views without inventing entirely new words.[10] Philosophy professor Stephen Hicks wrote in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy that Rand's "provocative title" was matched by "an equally provocative thesis about ethics."[11]


Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein described the collection of essays as "eclectic" and "appealing to interested nonacademic or nonspecialist readers as well as to the more serious student of Objectivism."[12] Gladstein reported that a number of contemporary reviews compared Rand's views to existentialism.[13]

In his book Winning Through Intimidation, self-help author Robert J. Ringer said The Virtue of Selfishness is Rand's "masterpiece".[14]

See alsoEdit



  1. Gladstein 1999, p. 80; Burns 2009, p. 211
  2. Burns 2009, pp. 210–211; Heller 2009, pp. 335–337
  3. Gladstein 1999, p. 81; Burns 2009, p. 212
  4. "Sales of Ayn Rand Books Reach 25 million Copies". Ayn Rand Institute. April 7, 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  5. Kukathas 1998, p. 55
  6. Rand, Ayn. "Introduction". In Rand 1964, pp. vii–ix
  7. Presley, Sharon. "Ayn Rand's Philosophy of Individualism: A Feminist Psychologist's Perspective". In Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999, pp. 265–266
  8. Hocutt 2008, p. 440
  9. Den Uyl, Douglas J. and Rasmussen, Douglas B. "Life, Teleology, and Eudaimonia in the Ethics of Ayn Rand". In Den Uyl & Rasmussen 1986, p. 76
  10. Sciabarra 1995, p. 252
  11. Hicks, Stephen R. C. (July 7, 2005). "Ayn Rand (1905–1982)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  12. Gladstein 1999, p. 81
  13. Gladstein 1999, p. 119
  14. Ringer, Robert J.. Winning Through Intimidation. Los Angeles Book Publishers. p. vii. ISBN 0-308-10229-0.

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